White spots on the nails are very common and usually recur. These small, semi-circular spots result from injury to the base (matrix) of the nail where nail cells are produced. They are not a cause for concern and will eventually grow out.
Ingrown nails can be very uncomfortable until treated.
Ingrown toenails are a common nail problem. The great toenails are particularly vulnerable. Improper nail trimming or tight shoes cause a corner of the nail to curve downward into the skin. Ingrown nails can be painful and sometimes even lead to infection.
Fungal infections of the nail can cause discoloration and abnormal growth.
Fungal infections make up approximately 50 percent of all nail disorders and can be difficult to treat. More common in toenails than fingernails, they often cause the end of the nail to separate from the nail bed. Additionally, debris may build up under the nail plate and discolor the nail bed. Toenails are more susceptible to fungal infections because they are confined in a warm, moist, weight-bearing environment.
Psoriasis can also affect the nails.
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by red, scaly patches. Approximately 10 to 50 percent of people with psoriasis, and 80 percent of people who suffer from inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis, also have nail problems. The most common nail problems include pitting, rippling, or discoloration of the nail, reddish-brown discoloration of the skin under the nail, separation of the nail from the nail bed, splinter hemorrhages, crumbling and/or splitting of the nail, as well as swelling and redness of the skin surrounding the base of the nail.